Rainbow trout are related to salmons and are sometimes called salmon trout. Some species can live in sea water or fresh water. This article explains some of the basic information needed to harvest Rainbow trout in your aquaponics system.
Rainbow Trout? Steelhead?
Oceangoing or those returning for spawning are called steelheads or ocean trout.
Steelheads can spawn several times and make several trips between salt and fresh water.
The maximum recorded age for a rainbow trout is 11 years. The IGFA recognized world record was caught in Sept 2009 and weighed 48lbs.
What do Trout Eat?
Rainbow trout are predators and eat just about anything. Brown trout are even more aggressive than rainbow trout. Normal diet would include:
- Caddis flies
- Soldier flies
- Water boatman
- Mosquito larvae
- Mosquito pupae
- Haliplid beetles
- Dytiscid beetles
- midges, black flies, crane flies, etc.
- Water lous
- Other Fish up to 1/3 their size
- Fish Eggs
As the fish grow larger they eat more fish proportionally.
The types of baits and lures used are:
- Fly Fishing
- Small Crankbaits
- Night Crawlers
- Trout Worms
Size of Fish
This chart shows what a trout should weigh given a specific length:
Diseases of Rainbow Trout
Rainbow trout are susceptible to enteric redmouth disease, but this does not affect humans. Rainbow trout can get other diseases that are common to all fish.
How Does Rainbow Trout Taste?
Wild and farmed fish have different flavors based on what they are eating.
Wild rainbow trout eat more shrimp, crawfish and flies and many find these taste more appealing. In aquaponics, you can feed your trout crickets, worms, black soldier flies, tubifex worms, and commercial foods as a supplement to adjust the taste of the fish.
Flesh can be red/orange or white/yellowish. The red/orange flesh color comes from high levels of Astaxanthin which is a powerful antioxidant. The red/orange flesh has a stronger fish flavor.
The size of the fish also determines the intensity of the fish taste. Rainbow trout are of edible size within 6 months, but these will be smaller fish that weigh around 1 pound and will not have the intense flavor of older fish.
Rainbow Trout Temperatures
Aquaponics tend to need water higher than 68 degrees for plant growth, and trout need water temperatures that vary between species:
|Species||Low Temp||Ideal Low||Ideal High||Max Temp||Max Age||pH Min||pH Max|
|Brook Trout||36F||?? F||?? F||59F||24y||?||?|
|Rainbow Trout||36F||45 F||65 F||71F||11y||6||8.5|
|Sea Trout||65F||?? F||?? F||75F||38y||?||?|
|Lake Trout||36F||?? F||?? F||61F||7y||?||?|
|Brown Trout||36F||?? F||?? F||61F||8y||?||?|
Some fingerlings can take up to 80F water, but adults cannot.
Measure water temperature at the middle/bottom of the tank and at the surface. Average the temperatures, and take temperatures at various times of the day. Know that water will be 5 degrees warmer/colder than ambient temperature.
Using my temperature chart for Mesa, AZ
This tells me that if I want to harvest trout, my realistic growing season is probably from October (Fingerlings only) to April. In May if I have unharvested rainbow trout, they will likely die. If I have a hot month in April, I might lose trout there too.
Because it takes at least 6 months to grow a fingerling to plate size, I might have a bunch of small fish if I try Rainbow Trout.
Trout like fast moving high oxygenated water. As water temperature goes up, dissolved oxygen goes down.